Distress Disclosure Index (Kahn & Hessling, 2001)


A 12-item measure of oneís tendency to disclose (versus conceal) personally distressing information across time and situations.


Kahn, J. H., & Hessling, R. M. (2001). Measuring the tendency to conceal versus disclose psychological distress. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 20, 41-65. doi:10.1521/jscp.

Kahn, J. H.. Hucke, B. E., Bradley, A. M., Glinski, A. J., & Malak, B. L. (2012). The Distress Disclosure Index: A research review and multitrait-multimethod examination. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 59, 134-149. doi:10.1037/a0025716


Please read each of the following items carefully. Indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with each item according to the rating scale below:

            1          2          3          4          5
Strongly Disagree                     Strongly Agree

1.      When I feel upset, I usually confide in my friends.
2.      I prefer not to talk about my problems.
3.      When something unpleasant happens to me, I often look for someone to talk to.
4.      I typically don't discuss things that upset me.
5.      When I feel depressed or sad, I tend to keep those feelings to myself.
6.      I try to find people to talk with about my problems.
7.      When I am in a bad mood, I talk about it with my friends.
8.      If I have a bad day, the last thing I want to do is talk about it.
9.      I rarely look for people to talk with when I am having a problem.
10.    When Iím distressed I donít tell anyone.
11.    I usually seek out someone to talk to when I am in a bad mood.
12.    I am willing to tell others my distressing thoughts.



Reverse score items 2, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10. Then sum the 12 items. Higher scores indicate a higher tendency to disclose distress, lower scores indicate greater concealment of distress.